Arthritis and LPS

The link between LPS and rheumatoid arthritis is so strong that they test medications for rheumatoid arthritis by testing their effect on LPS receptors.

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Nippon Seikeigeka Gakkai Zasshi. 1992 May;66(5):525-38.
[Immunohistochemical localization of interleukin-1 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of experimental arthritis in the ankles of rats immunized with LPS extracted from Escherichia coli] [Article in Japanese]

* Noyori K.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan.

Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were immunized by subcutaneous injections with heat-killed E. coli 0:14 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from E. coli for 15, 29 and 39 weeks which induced arthritis in the ankle. Localization of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and LPS in the ankle joints were investigated immunohistochemically. Serum IgM rheumatoid factor-like substance (RFLS) and anti-LPS IgM were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Rats immunized with LPS for 39 weeks developed synovial lining cell hyperplasia in 25 of 40 ankles and lymphoid cell infiltration in 25 and pannus formation in 23, the rates of which were significantly higher than those of control and rats immunized with LPS for 15 and 29 weeks. The induction rate of arthritis in rats immunized with LPS was the same as that in rats immunized with E. coli. LPS and IL-1 were located in synovial cells and pannus in arthritic joints. Changes of RFLS level in rats immunized with LPS were elevated more gradually than those in rats immunized with E. coli. These findings suggest that LPS could stimulate IL-1 and RFLS production and may induce arthritis in rats resembling rheumatoid arthritis.

PMID: 1506748 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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1: Immunology. 2000 Apr;99(4):607-14.

Bacterial lipopolysaccharide acts as an adjuvant to induce autoimmune arthritis in mice.

Yoshino S, Sasatomi E, Ohsawa M.

Department of Microbiology, Saga Medical School, Saga, Japan.

We investigated the ability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an adjuvant to induce autoimmune arthritis. LPS from Escherichia coli was intraperitoneally injected into DBA/1J mice together with the joint cartilage component type II collagen (CII) on day 0. Thereafter, the injection of CII and LPS was continued every 2 weeks up to day 56. The results showed that mice injected with CII plus LPS had signs of arthritis on day 55 and the joint inflammation reached a peak on day 75. Injection of CII or LPS alone induced no arthritis. Histologically, marked oedema of synovium and intense infiltration of inflammatory cells, including neutrophils, were observed 3 days after the onset of joint inflammation. Twenty-one days later, there were marked proliferation of synovial tissues with many mononuclear cells and destruction of cartilage. Anti-CII immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG2a antibodies were markedly produced in mice injected with CII plus LPS. Pronounced secretion of cytokines, including interleukins-12 and -1beta, interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha, was also observed in these animals. Arthritis was passively transferred into naive syngeneic mice with sera but not with lymphoid cells from mice given CII with LPS. Other types of LPS from Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium and Klebsiella pneumoniae as well as lipid A from E. coli, induced inflammation in joints when administered with CII. Polymixin B sulphate mixed with LPS or lipid A blocked the induction of joint inflammation. These results indicate that LPS appears to play an important role as an adjuvant in the induction of arthritis in which autoimmunity to CII is involved.

PMID: 10792509 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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1: Scand J Immunol. 2005 Aug;62(2):117-22.

Reactivation of antigen-induced arthritis in mice by oral administration of lipopolysaccharide.

Yoshino S, Yamaki K, Taneda S, Yanagisawa R, Takano H.

Department of Pharmacology, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe, Japan.

We examined whether oral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli reactivated antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in mice that is one of models of human rheumatoid arthritis. To induce AIA, mice were immunized by subcutaneous injection of ovalbumin (OVA) emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant into the base of the tail (day 0) followed by intraarticular injection of OVA on day 21. To investigate the ability of LPS to reactivate AIA, varying doses of LPS were p.o. administered 48 h after the challenge injection. The results showed that administration of LPS was followed by reactivation of AIA in a dose-related fashion. The reactivation of AIA by LPS was associated with increases in interferon-gamma, interleukin-1beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Polymyxin B sulfate given immediately before administration of LPS suppressed the reactivation of AIA. These findings suggest that LPS from intestinal bacteria may play a role in the reactivation of joint inflammation in which immune responses to pathogenic antigens are involved.

PMID: 16101817 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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1: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Jul;1070:359-64.

VIP decreases TLR4 expression induced by LPS and TNF-alpha treatment in human synovial fibroblasts.

Juarranz Y, Gutiérrez-Cañas I, Arranz A, Martínez C, Abad C, Leceta J, Pablos JL, Gomariz RP.

Departamento de Biología Celular, Facultad de Biología, UCM, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

It has been demonstrated that VIP produces beneficial effects both in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis and in human rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts through the modulation of proinflammatory mediators. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in the immediate recognition of microbial surface components by immune cells prior to the development of adaptative microbe-specific immune responses. In this study, we demonstrate that VIP decreases lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TNF-alpha-induced expression of TLR4 and its correlation with the production of CCL2 and CXCL8 chemokines in human synovial fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Our results add a new step for the use of VIP, as a promising candidate, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

PMID: 16888192 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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1: Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006 May;45(5):527-32. Epub 2005 Nov 30.

VIP down-regulates TLR4 expression and TLR4-mediated chemokine production in human rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts.

Gutiérrez-Cañas I, Juarranz Y, Santiago B, Arranz A, Martinez C, Galindo M, Payá M, Gomariz RP, Pablos JL.

Servicio de Reumatología, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Avda. de Córdoba s/n 28041, Madrid, Spain.

OBJECTIVES: Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has demonstrated therapeutic effects in arthritis by inhibiting both innate and acquired immune responses. We investigated the potential effects of VIP in the regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and function in synovial fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Cultured fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) were obtained from patients with RA and OA. The effects of VIP on basal or TNF-alpha or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 expression and its effects on TLR4-mediated CCL2 and CXCL8 chemokine production were studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 mRNA expression was increased in RA FLS compared with OA FLS. The largest increase was observed for TLR4 and there was also overexpression at the protein level in RA FLS. TLR4 and MyD88 mRNA and proteins were induced by LPS and TNF-alpha in RA FLS. VIP down-regulated the induced but not the constitutive expression of TLR4 and MyD88 in RA FLS. VIP treatment decreased CCL2 and CXCL8 chemokine production in response to TLR4 activation with LPS in RA FLS. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that VIP down-regulates LPS and TNF-alpha activation of TLR4 expression and the TLR4 functional response in terms of proinflammatory chemokine production. These studies suggest that the pleiotropic anti-inflammatory actions of VIP involve inhibitory effects on TLR4 expression and signalling.

PMID: 16319097 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]