NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) and LPS
NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) is a protein complex that plays a key role in regulating the immune response to infection. Unfortunately, incorrect regulation of NF-κB has been linked to cancer, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, septic shock, viral infection, and improper immune development.
NF-κB seems to also play a key role in autism.
The fact that NF-κB is induced by LPS is well known among scientist. Nobel Laureate David Baltimore,
wrote that LPS induces NF-κB in a research article about HIV and LPS. 
The next article states that LPS activates NF-kappaB and that this process may be associated with cancer.
View this article in PubMed
1: BMC Immunol. 2007 Jan 12;8:1.
Transcriptional profiling of the LPS induced NF-kappaB response in macrophages.
Sharif O, Bolshakov VN, Raines S, Newham P, Perkins ND.
Division of Gene Regulation and Expression, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, MSI/WTB/JBC Complex, Dow Street, Dundee, DD1 5EH Scotland, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Exposure of macrophages to bacterial products such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in activation of the NF-kappaB transcription factor, which orchestrates a gene expression programme that underpins the macrophage-dependent immune response. These changes include the induction or repression of a wide range of genes that regulate inflammation, cell proliferation, migration and cell survival. This process is tightly regulated and loss of control is associated with conditions such as septic shock, inflammatory diseases and cancer. To study this response, it is important to have in vitro model systems that reflect the behaviour of cells in vivo. In addition, it is necessary to understand the natural differences that can occur between individuals. In this report, we have investigated and compared the LPS response in macrophage derived cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) derived macrophages. RESULTS: Gene expression profiles were determined following LPS treatment of THP-1 cells for 1 and 4 hours. LPS significantly induced or repressed 72 out of 465 genes selected as being known or putative NF-kappaB target genes, which exhibited 4 temporal patterns of expression. Results for 34 of these genes, including several genes not previously identified as LPS target genes, were validated using real time PCR. A high correlation between microarray and real time PCR data was found. Significantly, the LPS induced expression profile of THP-1 cells, as determined using real time PCR, was found to be very similar to that of human PBMC derived macrophages. Interestingly, some differences were observed in the LPS response between the two donor PBMC macrophage populations. Surprisingly, we found that the LPS response in U937 cells was dramatically different to both THP-1 and PBMC derived macrophages. CONCLUSION: This study revealed a dynamic and diverse transcriptional response to LPS in macrophages, involving both the induction and repression of gene expression in a time dependent manner. Moreover, we demonstrated that the LPS induced transcriptional response in the THP-1 cell line is very similar to primary PBMC derived macrophages. Therefore, THP-1 cells represent a good model system for studying the mechanisms of LPS and NF-kappaB dependent gene expression.
PMID: 17222336 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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1: J Exp Med. 1990 Jul 1;172(1):253-61.
Lipopolysaccharide is a potent monocyte/macrophage-specific stimulator of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 expression.
Pomerantz RJ, Feinberg MB, Trono D, Baltimore D.
Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potently stimulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1-long terminal repeat (HIV-1-LTR) CAT constructs transfected into monocyte/macrophage-like cell lines but not a T cell line. This effect appears to be mediated through the induction of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrate that LPS induces a DNA binding activity indistinguishable from NF-kappa B in U937 and THP-1 cells. LPS is also shown to dramatically increase HIV-1 production from a chronically infected monocyte/macrophage-like cloned cell line, U1, which produces very low levels of HIV-1 at baseline. The stimulation of viral production from this cell line occurs only if these cells are treated with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) before treatment with LPS. This stimulation of HIV-1 production is correlated with an increase in the level of HIV-1 RNA and and activation of NF-kappa B. LPS is not able to induce HIV-1 production in a cloned T cell line. The effect of LPS on HIV-1 replication occurs at picogram per milliliter concentrations and may be clinically significant in understanding the variability of the natural history of HIV-1 infection.
PMID: 2193097 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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